小红猪抢稿第111期:Dead man’s sperm

本文作者:小红猪小分队

重要说明:请对文中用分割线划出的段落进行翻译。有余力的译者可对其余段落,甚至是全文翻译,但请将规定要翻译的部分复制一份,放在稿件开头。此举是为了更好的衡量译者投稿的翻译质量。

看过“重要说明后”,欢迎参加第111期小红猪抢稿:

如果丈夫因意外突然离世,尚未生育的妻子想要一个两人的孩子,还有办法吗?

从死者身上获取精子,保存精子,将之用于生育用途——这一切既是科学技术问题,同时也是伦理道德问题。

本期抢稿:Dead man’s sperm

什么是小红猪抢稿?看这里:小红猪抢稿规则

本期抢稿的截止日期为北京时间2016年5月31日22点整

© Kyle Bean and Mitch Payne

© Kyle Bean and Mitch Payne

Dead man’s sperm

There is a man waiting for the doctor and his time is running out.It is late evening, just over an hour after the doctor first groped for his ringing phone. “Can you help us?” the woman on the other end had asked, her voice breaking.Now, preparing for the procedure, the doctor is alert. He moves quickly. He scrubs his hands and arms with soap and snaps on his gloves. His assistant clinks down sterilised instruments and fluid-filled containers onto a stainless steel table. The walls are cinder block, painted a pale yellow. The air is cool and heavy with the scent of disinfectant.The doctor sits over the patient ready to perform the surgery. He pauses, fixing a picture in his mind, then slices through the skin until he can see the organ’s outer layers. It glistens, milky white and veiny. The doctor cuts off a spongy piece and drops it into a vial. His assistant whisks it away.Having verified that the procedure was a success, the doctor carefully sutures the patient back up. The patient remains still. The room is quiet. There is no beeping monitor or IV drip. No one checks the patient’s vitals. He has been given no pain relief.

The patient is dead.

He has, in fact, been so for a while – over 30 hours, according to his chart – but some of him survives. What the doctor has extracted is a liquid that can create life. An incredible substance that is neither person nor property; simultaneously so abundant yet valuable that we still haven’t quite figured out how to treat it. It is the dead man’s sperm.

§

Ana and Michael Clark had only been married a year when Mike got orders to ship out overseas for his fifth deployment. Mike, 25, was a sergeant in the Marine Corps. He joined at 18 and in his seven years had already earned several ribbons and medals, including a Purple Heart. The couple had decided to connect with a trip before Mike’s deployment: a motorcycle ride along a California highway.

It would be their last together. On the way back onto the highway after lunch, Mike lost control of their bike and they flew off a cliff. Ana survived the accident. Mike did not.

Recovering from spine and shoulder fractures in the hospital, Ana was grieving for not only her husband, but their future children. “We had talked about it maybe a week or two before he passed because he was going on the deployment, and he said, ‘Yeah, you know it’s too bad that we can’t go to a sperm bank now and freeze sperm… I have way too much to do at work.’”

Seeing Ana distraught over her lost chance at children with her husband, a friend suggested that she consider retrieving some of Mike’s sperm. You know, her friend said, sperm live a lot longer than you think. So Ana googled it. “I looked online and called the number for the sperm bank,” she says. It took a few calls before she found a doctor willing to perform a sperm extraction on a deceased patient. “And then I had to hire a hearse…”

The hearse took Mike’s body the 100 or so miles from the hospital in Riverside to San Diego for the procedure, and back again.

Over the phone, Ana comes off as independent and level-headed. Articles in the media sometimes hint that women interested in creating what is sometimes known as a posthumously conceived child are a little off, still clinging to the loved one they can never get back, not quite in touch with reality. Ana Clark’s feet seem firmly planted.

“It gave me a sense of hope that he wasn’t going to be gone for ever, that I was going to be able to have a piece of him that was still alive. Just for me. My very own little piece of my Mike.” More than that, Ana wanted Mike to have a legacy. “He was a very, very good man. He was a very good Marine, and to know that I would be able to carry a form of legacy, someone that was going to continue the path as the hero he was, I think that’s what really motivated me…”

§

In the late 1970s, Los Angeles urologist Cappy Rothman performed the first post-mortem sperm retrieval.

Before this, Rothman had been extracting sperm from men living with infertility, work that gave him a detailed knowledge of male reproductive anatomy, experience in sperm extraction and preservation, and contacts who knew he was interested in assisting men with reproductive issues. He had quickly become known in Los Angeles.

“Within six weeks of practice, I was booked up for six months,” he recalls. Then, when a prominent politician’s son was left brain-dead after a car accident, “I got a call from the chief resident of neurosurgery at UCLA and he said, ‘I have a strange request. [This politician] would like to have his son’s sperm preserved. Could you do it?’”

Rothman came up with three options: administer a drug that would make the entire body convulse, hopefully inducing ejaculation; remove the man’s reproductive organs and go looking for sperm; or (because the brain-dead man still had some bodily functions) manual stimulation. “I remember there was a pause at the end of the phone… [the neurosurgeon] says, ‘Hey doc, I’ve been asked to do a lot of things as chief resident of neurosurgery but if you think I’m going to jerk off a dead man you’re crazy.’”

They decided on the second option. “It almost felt like Michelangelo,” says Rothman, “being alone, in an OR, with the male anatomy. It was an education.” He published a paper on this first case in 1980.

The first live birth resulting from a post-mortem extraction wasn’t until 1999. Gaby Vernoff gave birth to baby Brandalynn from sperm extracted by Rothman 30 hours after her husband died. According to Gaby, the pregnancy took with the last vial of sperm. In the high-profile 2009 legal case Vernoff v. Astrue, Gaby went to court seeking social security benefits for her posthumously conceived child. The courts found that Brandalynn was not entitled to survivor’s benefits because she was not her father’s dependant at the time of his death, as required by California law.

In Arizona, though, courts had decided in 2004 that children conceived after their father’s death were entitled to benefits. There, unlike California, biological parenthood is sufficient for legal parenthood.

Today, Rothman is co-founder and medical director of California Cryobank, the largest sperm bank in the US. He estimates that the practice has performed close to 200 post-mortem sperm extractions. Most of these are recent, as the procedure has become more common. Their records show just three extractions in the 1980s and 15 in the 1990s. But from 2000 to 2014, they performed 130: an average of just under nine a year.

And Rothman’s is by no means the only clinic that offers this service. Recent statistics are scarce, but surveys of US fertility centres in 1997 and 2002 found increasing numbers of requests for post-mortem sperm retrieval, although from a very low base. According to Jason Hans, a professor in the Department of Family Sciences at the University of Kentucky, “the increasing prevalence of hospital and clinic protocols, legal cases, scientific and popular press articles also suggests an increase in requests for the procedure but, admittedly, may also represent increasing awareness rather than an increasing number of requests”.

Whatever the specifics, post-mortem sperm retrieval is very much a thing.

§

Our bodies, it seems, die not all at once, but in parts. Early scientific literature advises doctors to extract and freeze a sperm sample within 24–36 hours of death but case studies show that under the right conditions, viable sperm can survive well beyond this deadline. Rothman tells of a man who died kayaking in cold water whose sperm were in good shape a full two days later. And in April 2015, doctors in Australia announced a “happy, healthy baby” born from sperm removed 48 hours after the death of the father.

The sperm don’t have to be zippy and perfect, just alive. Though swimmers freeze and thaw much better, sluggish sperm can still create a pregnancy. All it takes is a single sperm injected into an egg.

© Kyle Bean and Mitch Payne

© Kyle Bean and Mitch Payne

1) Urethra. 2) Penis. 3) Urinary bladder. 4) Seminal vesicle. 5) Ejaculatory duct. 6) Prostate gland. 7) Vas deferens. 8) Epididymis. 9) Testis. 10) Scrotum.

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But first someone must retrieve it. To understand the procedure, it is useful know a little about the male reproductive system. However you know them – balls, nads, nuts, marbles, cherries, cojones – the testes are the spherical organs that hang down behind the penis. Connected to each testis, cupping it from above, is the epididymis, the tube in which sperm mature and are transported from the testes to the vas deferens. The vas deferens carries mature sperm to the urethra, which runs down the middle of the penis to the outside world.

There are several main ways that sperm are harvested, including needle extraction. As the name suggests, this method involves inserting a needle into the testis and drawing out some sperm. It’s often used in live patients but, because minimising invasiveness does not matter the same in dead people, doctors tend to use other methods post-mortem.

One of these approaches is to extract the testis or epididymis surgically. As the epididymis is where sperm go to mature, this tissue is a popular target. The doctor surgically removes the epididymis and milks it or otherwise separates the sperm from the tissue. Alternatively, the epididymis or a piece of testicular tissue can be frozen whole.

As the sperm in the vas deferens are fully mature, it is also possible to extract them from there. The surgeon may make a slit in this long, flexible tube and draw out fluid with a needle (aspiration) or flush the tube with a solution (irrigation). Mature sperm are better able to move, find an egg and penetrate it to complete fertilisation.

A fourth option is rectal probe ejaculation, also known as electroejaculation. The doctor inserts a conductive probe into the man’s anus until it is next to the prostate. A jolt of electricity causes a muscle contraction that stimulates ejaculation of sperm through the usual channels.

Interestingly, this technique was developed for and is still widely used in animal husbandry (for bulls, ferrets, leopards, elephants and hippopotamuses, among others). Because it does not require intact reflexes, it is also used for men who have spinal injuries.

But just because we know how to extract sperm after death, there is no assurance that someone will be given access to the procedure should they request it. Martin Bastuba, founder and medical director of Male Fertility & Sexual Medicine Specialists in San Diego, is the doctor who retrieved Mike Clark’s sperm after his motorcycle accident. “There are no specific rules,” Bastuba says. “Most of the laws on the books were written before this technology really existed.”

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The US legal position is a tangle of confusing and sometimes conflicting regulations. The laws that govern tissue and organ donation are federal (the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act and the National Organ Transplant Act), but they don’t necessarily apply to sperm, classed as renewable tissue. Arthur Caplan, head of bioethics at the New York University Langone Medical Center, says that federal law “should be emended to include sperm, eggs, uterus, ovaries and testes”. Meanwhile, artificial reproduction is regulated by individual states.

If a man has made no prior directives, such as enrolling as an organ donor, the next of kin can decide when to stop life support, whether to donate a man’s organs, how his body will be used or disposed of, and his funeral rites. But his sperm are often treated differently.

Sperm, it is said, are special. Several recent court rulings have given sperm a legal status higher than that of blood, bone marrow or organs. While those substances and body parts may be used to save life, sperm – like eggs – are often singled out for their potential to create life. In line with this view are positions such as that of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, which argued 2013 that, “in the absence of a written directive, it is reasonable to conclude that physicians are not obligated to comply with either request [for sperm extraction or use of extracted sperm] from a surviving spouse or partner”.

Other opinions and legal rulings vary, though. In 2006, a judge who was interpreting organ donation policy ruled that organs, sperm included, can be gifted by a man’s parents after his death, provided the man didn’t previously refuse to make such a gift.

Because we still can’t decide on what sperm are or are not, policies on post-mortem sperm extraction differ between hospitals, and are spotty and inconsistent. Many hospitals have no policy at all. In one review published in 2013 in the journal Fertility and Sterility, biomedical ethicists contacted 40 US hospitals about their post-mortem sperm collection protocols. Only six produced complete protocols, and 24 of them (60 per cent) reported that either they either had no protocol or were unaware of one. This lack of policy may be because post-mortem sperm requests are rare. Unfortunately, when a request is made, the countdown has already begun and the hospital needs to be able to decide quickly.

This variability means that two hospitals across the street from each other might make opposite decisions. The 2013 Fertility and Sterility review concludes: “Many institutions do not yet have protocols in place, and those that are in place differ in important ways, including the standard of evidence regarding consent, wait time mandates before use of the sperm, method of sperm retrieval, and logistics of sperm storage and payment for the procedure.”

Doctors seeking direction may find help in published guidelines, a kind of urology “pirate code”. The guidelines from the urology department of Cornell University have been adopted by New York Hospital and others formally and informally across the US. The guidelines include that the person requesting must be the wife of the deceased, that the couple must have been committed to having children together, and that the widow must wait at least a year to gain access to the extracted sperm.

The American Society for Reproductive Medicine’s position is that post-mortem sperm requests should be granted only to surviving spouses or life partners, and that there must be a grief period prior to the sperm’s use. Notably, it counsels that medical centres “are not obligated to participate in such activities, but in any case should develop written policies”.

If a doctor or hospital does not feel comfortable performing the procedure, often they can release the body to someone else. Bastuba has harvested sperm in the intensive care unit of a hospital, in a morgue, in a medical examiner’s office, and even in a funeral home. But there has to be enough time so that the sperm will still be viable. Every decision made along the way must comply with individual hospital policy or the decision of its medical ethics board.

§

What about other countries? Some have laws in place. Some don’t. Some are permissive. Some aren’t. It’s a global mess.

France, Germany, Sweden and Canada are among the countries that prohibit posthumous sperm retrieval. In the United Kingdom, it is not allowed unless the man has given prior written consent. In the mid-1990s, the case of Diane Blood brought the issue into the public eye there. Diane and her husband Stephen had already begun trying for a family when Stephen died suddenly from meningitis. At first the courts denied Diane’s request to have children using Stephen’s sperm, saying its collection had been illegal. But after appeal, she won the right to send the sperm outside the UK so she could undergo insemination in a more permissive country.

Diane eventually gave birth to two boys with her husband’s sperm. But the UK government refused to recognise Stephen as the boys’ father, making them fatherless in the eyes of the law. Following efforts from Diane, in 2003 the government acknowledged that it had denied the Blood family basic human rights by preventing Diane from naming Stephen on the boys’ birth certificates. Diane has since published a book about her experience and continues a career in media. She writes in an email that “time has moved on. Now people don’t even understand what all the fuss was about.”

Women continue to push against UK prohibitions. Beth Warren recently won a legal battle to prevent her husband’s sperm from being destroyed following his death. He had banked sperm before beginning cancer treatment and later died from a brain tumour. Regulations had stipulated that the sperm could not be stored beyond ten years without renewed consent.

Removing sperm without the donor’s prior written consent is forbidden in the Netherlands, even though proxies are allowed to make decisions relating to issues like organ donation and tissue collection. Doctors clearly struggle with these restrictions. In one case, of a man who was due to be taken off life support, a team of doctors eventually denied a request to retrieve sperm, in line with regulations. In their paper they reflect, almost wistfully, that they could have instead sent him to neighbouring Belgium before his life support was withdrawn, because sperm retrieval is not prohibited there.

There is little literature on attitudes in Asia, but what is available suggests restrictive policies. According to Asian Bioethics Review and various press reports, in 2005 a Taiwanese military officer’s fiancée requested his sperm after he was killed by a tank that he was guiding onto a truck. The Taiwanese Department of Health first denied her request for sperm retrieval but then acquiesced under public pressure – though she never got access to it. Later, the government enacted legislation that prevents even married couples who are taking steps to undergo artificial insemination from continuing to do so after the husband’s death.

In Queensland, Australia, a woman was denied the right to harvest and freeze her husband’s sperm after his unexpected death, although they were planning to start a family. She later learned that her husband may have donated sperm when he was a student. A paper written on the case by an ethicist argues why, in principle, the woman should have been able to buy the sperm were it still available and viable.

Fertility doctors working in Western Australia describe the situation there in a 2014 paper for Human Reproduction: “There is an anomaly in the Law as one Act of Parliament says that we can collect sperm while another indicates that we cannot store such sperm,” they write, adding that they do not extract sperm posthumously without a Supreme Court Order. “We hope that one day this legal mess is sorted out,” they add.

In Israel, implied consent suffices – a deceased man need not have left a written document, but his widow just has to say that she believes he would give consent were he alive to do so. The government may even provide financial assistance: state health insurance will pay for as many IVF cycles as needed to produce two babies. As for the rights of posthumously created children, after a 2007 court battle any child produced is considered the deceased man’s legal heir.

Some fertility clinics in the US and elsewhere refuse to perform a post-mortem extraction if the person requesting is anyone other than the man’s wife or committed partner, unless he has left written instructions that state otherwise. These policies mirror the American Society for Reproductive Medicine’s position as well as the Cornell guidelines, which state that “the wife must be the individual to provide consent, not the deceased man’s family, as the wife is the individual with whom the deceased intended to procreate”.

Israel’s relatively permissive policies have recently created a rather tricky situation. TheTimes of Israel reported in 2015 that parents of a combat reservist killed in training have won the right to have his grandchild. But there was a twist. They won rights to the sperm despite the fact that their son’s widow refused to have his baby after his death and objects to his parents’ efforts to use the sperm themselves.

It’s worth remembering that for every case reported in the media – and there are many – there are likely many more people privately requesting the procedure and quietly succeeding, or not.

§

How do doctors and review boards weigh up decisions on post-mortem sperm extraction? “Like most issues in reproductive ethics or medicine in general, your big concerns are respecting the wishes and consent of the patient,” says Elizabeth Yuko, a bioethicist. “In this case, because the patient is deceased, this makes it a little trickier, but you also want to respect the welfare of the future child… In a lot of cases you are guessing what the wishes of the deceased are.”

There are other considerations too, including respecting the integrity of the dead man’s body, his right to procreate, his right not to procreate, family members’ rights to children or grandchildren, and alleviating the grief of surviving loved ones.

Where a man has made his wishes clear, the rights of the dead almost always supplant the rights of the living. Why? Law professor Glenn Cohen says this question is almost as old as philosophy itself. There are two main camps. “One says… if you can’t experience anything… how we can talk cogently about you being harmed?” he says. “The other camp says no, your life can go better or worse depending on what happens to you after you are dead.” For those in this camp, he says, it’s much more natural to think that banning posthumous retrieval is necessary to prevent harm to the dead.

In post-mortem sperm extraction, when we ask “What are sperm?” we’re also asking “What is life?” and “What is death?”

One place where living men are asked about the fate of their sperm after death is at a sperm bank. In 2012 a group of researchers explored this data. Of around 360 men with cancer or infertility diagnoses who banked sperm at a Texas sperm bank, almost 85 per cent consented to post-mortem use.

Aaron Sheffield, a youth pastor from Tallahassee, Florida, banked sperm prior to treatment for testicular cancer. He agrees that if his wife had wanted to use his sperm to create a child after his death, she should have been able to. “It goes back to just marriage vows,” he says. “She has as much right as I do to use it if she had wanted to… I don’t think ethically or morally that she would be in the wrong to use it.” Today the couple have two children, conceived naturally. They have destroyed Aaron’s banked sperm and he has had a vasectomy.

In a US telephone survey published in 2014, researchers asked people whether or not they would want their spouse to be able to use their sperm (or eggs) after their death to make a child. Seventy per cent of men aged 18–44 said yes. The researchers concluded that a presumption of consent would result in the dead men’s wishes being honoured three times more often than the current conservative standard.

Over the last four decades attitudes towards the issue seem to have changed. Rothman recalls how an interviewer once attacked him on TV: “She was just so biased. You could tell she hated what I did,” he says. “They thought it was awful… I think [later] they sent flowers and apologised…” Although unpleasant, such treatment reflects an unease shared by many – in academic as well as popular arenas.

A 1998 British Medical Journal article discussing the ethics of sperm retrieval said: “Doctors have… unwittingly sanctioned the use of dead men’s bodies for women’s gratification.” The article concluded that doctors “must find the courage to say no to assaulting vulnerable, brain dead patients”.

In 2003 a group of doctors published a paper with their findings that instituting the relatively restrictive Cornell guidelines “dramatically decreased the number of post-mortem sperm retrievals performed at our institution”. They wrote: “We consider this a prudential conservative approach, given the lack of societal consensus on the subject.” Another ethics study in 2002 concluded: “Even with consent, the welfare of the potential child must be considered.”

More recently, people’s thoughts around post-mortem sperm extraction seem to be opening up. In 2008, a survey in a southern state of the US found that “overall attitudes and… beliefs were primarily in favor of posthumous harvesting”. And in 2015, ethicists in Australia published a commentary supporting a presumption of consent on the part of the dead man. They argue that there are plenty of benefits to both the deceased and his partner, and that the welfare of the living widow and the future child should be the primary concern.

But what about the children? Some feel that posthumous sperm donation should be prohibited in part because it creates disadvantaged children who will never know their biological father. But many children never know their biological father, even if he is alive. “What I found hard to grasp,” says Diane Blood, “was that I could have the sperm of an anonymous donor, even one who was dead, but not my own husband.”

Julianne Zweifel, a clinical psychologist and an ethics committee member at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, disagrees. “Adults are making a decision to bring a child into the world with, by definition, a deceased parent because of adult needs and not sufficient concern is being paid to what is the impact on the child,” she says.

According to Zweifel, research shows that people are not good at considering the welfare of those we do not yet know. Only once the child is a reality can we truly contemplate its welfare. “I don’t think that the adults who would pursue this are really in a psychological place where they can genuinely, really, truly envision the concerns for the child.”

Zweifel worries about the burdens placed on a child created through loss. “That child can end up being what some people would call a memorial candle to the deceased person… That child can feel that people are looking for traits of the deceased parent in them and they can feel beholden to do that.”

There is also the impossibility (rather than the mere unlikelihood) of ever knowing one’s father. “When you come into the world with a father who is dead, he is never going to be reachable for you,” says Zweifel. In her work with single mothers using sperm banks, she says that many choose identity-release donors so that their child can be in touch with the donor at a later time.

That said, in some countries, truly anonymous sperm donation can and does occur. And post-mortem sperm retrieval does not guarantee that the child will never have a father present, just that such a father will not have the usual genetic relationship. There have been cases in which children with genetic diseases or abnormalities seek but cannot find information about their sperm donor to help with treatments or future risks. A posthumously conceived child would at least have family history to look back on.

As for evidence, there is very little research on the possible psychological or health effects on a child conceived using sperm extracted posthumously. In 2015 an admittedly tiny study found that four children born from posthumously acquired sperm “have shown normal health and developmental outcomes”.

§

After everything – the illness or trauma that causes a man to die, the decisions around whether to try to get sperm or not, the processes and procedure involved if you do decide to – the surprising thing is, most relatives never even use the sperm.

Rothman and Bastuba view post-mortem sperm extraction mostly as an act of compassion for those who are grieving. Of the roughly 200 procedures they have performed, says Rothman, the extracted sperm have only been used twice. “What I’m finding is most of the time it’s done to [ease] the immediate grief of a family with a loss.”

Bastuba agrees: “Like so many things in life, it’s not the actual. It’s the perception. This longing to try to keep a piece of someone who was so important. That to me is the true value.” To his best recollection, no sperm from his post-mortem donors have produced a live child. In Israel, arguably one of the most permissive countries for posthumous reproduction, a 2011 article in Fertility and Sterility found that “none of the 21 post-mortem frozen tissue samples in our national sperm bank were requested for fertilization use during the past 8 years”.

Even those who are strongly focused on posthumous reproduction may eventually move forward without it. A Texan mother, Missy Evans, gained media attention in 2009 for her attempts to use her deceased son Nikolas’s sperm to create a child. “The reason that I felt so strongly about it,” Missy says, “is because of what my son’s desires were for his life.” She won permission to harvest Nikolas’s sperm, and sought and found willing surrogates in several countries.

But the process has been a struggle. Half the sperm vials have been used up and none of the embryos created have been viable. “It is so expensive and it is so time-consuming and it is so heartbreaking,” Missy says. She is not sure if she will continue.

In the meantime Missy has become a grandmother through her surviving son. “I spent so much time wreaking havoc with my family that these last few years we have spent just enjoying the granddaughter that I actually have,” she says. “My son was super afraid that I had concentrated my efforts on having my other son’s kid or kids that I wasn’t going to bask in the joy of the child that was here and so I listened to him.” Even so, she says that she has no regrets about the decision she made.

So what can you do to make sure that what does or doesn’t happen after your death is what you want? One practical thing is to include your future reproductive wishes in your living will. Especially in countries like the US, where the legal situation can be unclear, we really need to be having these conversations and putting our wishes down on paper.

Sadly this is not yet reality. But perhaps not surprisingly, Israel is leading the way. One enterprising lawyer there advertises a special service just for such needs in the form of The Biological Will. According to the company, the will, which allows children to be conceived after the death of both parents if necessary, means that “the right to genetic continuity can now be independent even of life itself”. In an unequivocal statement, its founder writes: “Denying the right to procreation is a sentence, perhaps closest in nature, to involuntary sterilization or the death penalty.”

As for Ana Clark, it has now been almost two years since Bastuba collected sperm from her dead husband. Does she still want to have Mike’s child? “Absolutely,” she says. “There is no possibility of me not having this child.” She wants to wait a couple of years, to give herself time to get her Master’s degree so she can provide for her child in the way she wants. “Whoever I do choose to be with is definitely going to have to accept that this is something I am going to do, and there is nothing they can do about it.”

Her family, she says, is completely supportive. It is strange to think that there would likely be fewer people questioning the ethics of Ana’s decision if she were to buy sperm from an anonymous donor. But she already met the man she wants to father her children. “I don’t want children with anyone else,” she says, “I only want them with my husband.”

(全文完)


你所在的公司或者领域在做哪些大数据应用?

谢 Maggie 姐邀请:)

最近在和 Google 合作,用大数据的方法做一个信息安全相关的项目。至于这个项目具体是做什么嘛。。因为过两天要拿去投 paper,所以抱歉暂时不便透露了哈哈。。 当然也别急着打我,我简单讲几个用大数据在信息安全方向应用的例子,抛砖引玉吧。

用大数据的方法做信息安全的背景在于,传统的“见招拆招”的安全措施面对灵活多变的攻击手段有些捉襟见肘,但各种攻击手段大多会表现出一定的共性。所以当样本(malware样本,server log,traffic pattern 等等)足够多的时候,只要能正确提取出数据中的feature,就可能找到这些灵活多变的adversary的一些共性行为,以此来作为防御。

下面结合几篇论文结说一下:

1. Malware detection (恶意软件侦测)
恶意软件侦测除了传统的对可执行文件进行分析以外,还可以根据其行为进行侦测。比如赛门铁克(Symantec)搞了一个项目[1],它的idea就是:你在网上浏(kan)览(pian)时下载了一个恶意软件,它可能会附带一些无害的文件(比如用于伪装),这种情况下这些文件和这个恶意软件的同时出现 (co-occurrence)的概率就会比较高。当我们通过传统的侦测手段发现了这个恶意软件的时候,和它co-occurrence概率较高的一些文件就会被认为有bad reputation。比如这时你在另一个用户的电脑上发现了一些同样的无害的文件,但没有发现这个恶意软件,那么就认为有可能是这个恶意软件的变种造成的。赛门铁克通过大量用户上传的匿名文件集合(file collection)样本(1亿多台机器上的100多亿个文件),对文件进行标记(labeling),训练出了这样一个侦测恶意软件的模型,识别率很高(True Positive在0.99以上),而且能做到比现有技术手段能提前一周识别。

2. 恶意链接预测
你在上网的时候很可能遇到过钓鱼网站,一般是那种看上去还比较正规但是你一点进去各种被骗输入密码或者个人信息的网站,比如我在知乎上也见到过:这封「知乎团队」的私信可信吗? – Sean 的回答,这个钓鱼站的域名是zhihuemail dot com,点进去你就上当了。怎样预测这样的域名是恶意网站呢?当有用户举报上当受骗时候显然已经晚了,而骇客们也会快速变换域名以躲避侦测。[2] 这篇paper 用大量的DNS记录, IP地址信息,以及域名管理方(whois)的记录,来预测一个域名是否是恶意网站。

3. DDoS检测
DDoS是各个网站都很头疼的问题,网站流量突然升高,你怎么知道是真的访问用户多了还是骇客通过僵尸网络对你发动的攻击呢?在这么多访问中,你怎么知道哪个是用户哪个是僵尸呢?[3]这篇paper 提出用流量包中的source和destination 的地址,端口号,包的类型等作为feature,采用k-NN算法对其进行分类,来检测DDoS攻击。(当然这个模型比较简单,用于在这里举例比较方便,然而实际上魔高一丈DDoS攻击手段更加多样性,我怀疑这种相对简单的方法能不能真正有效)

我作为一个硬件狗,本身并不是搞cybersecurity的,只是因为上课和做项目的缘故稍有了解,举的例子也多偏学术,还请见谅:)

[1] Tamersoy, Acar, Kevin Roundy, and Duen Horng Chau. “Guilt by association: large scale malware detection by mining file-relation graphs.” Proceedings of the 20th ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. ACM, 2014.
[2] Ma, Justin, et al. “Beyond blacklists: learning to detect malicious web sites from suspicious URLs.” Proceedings of the 15th ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining. ACM, 2009.
[3] Nguyen, Hoai-Vu, and Yongsun Choi. “Proactive detection of DDoS attacks utilizing k-NN classifier in an Anti-DDoS framework.” International Journal of Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering 4.4 (2010): 247-252.

来源:知乎 www.zhihu.com

作者:Sean

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对话网红孵化者:一个童颜巨乳东北姑娘的网红之旅

你点击进来,可能是被标题中的关键词吸引,不必感到不安,因为这些标题已经与花样繁多,不断更新的网红们一样,成为我们生活的一个基本组成部分。你也许会想一个问题:到底这些网红们从哪里来?她们是如何从天而降,从一个普通的北漂姑娘到时代的新兴偶像?这背后,又有多少人付出了努力却默默无闻?

今天我们的访问对象,狄千皓的身份是一个 “ 网红孵化者 ” ,APP “ 蜜星秀 ” 和 蜜星(北京)文化发展有限公司的创始人。顾名思义,他的工作是:制造网红。他出自传媒大学,曾经任职于央视《中华情》、《男人装》和美空网,在把握娱乐的脉搏和大众的眼球方面颇有心得。他每天至少看一百份从全国各地的简历,从中挑选那些最有潜质的网红雏形,用结合传统娱乐工业和互联网运作的一整套流程化体系帮助她们成名,进而匹配更多的客户。尽管在他看来,这个体系还可以更加的流水线化,他的理想是,在三个星期之内批量生产出一批网红。最终将他的蜜星成为“国内活跃度最高、覆盖率最广、内容策划能力最强的网红经纪平台”。他还准备开辟东欧市场,把东欧的素人变成中国网红,再推广到全世界。

我们希望了解究竟网红孵化是一个怎样的过程,但描述一个产业并不那么容易。为了更加直观的了解这个过程,我们选择了扮演一个待孵化的“网红”。在狄先生的指点下,我们选择了这样一个“容易火”的网红设定:19岁,东北人,童颜巨乳。假设我们是这样的一个姑娘,我们要怎样开始我们的网红之路,如何取悦我们的观众,又如何一步步逐渐从网红中搏杀出来,最终成功转型?

missing


PingWest品玩:你是怎么开始做这一行的?

狄千皓:好的,我先简单介绍一下自己的背景。从央视的时候,当时在文艺口,在中央四套的文艺类栏目《中华情》,是个户外大型文艺汇演,通俗点叫晚会,在这个节目组工作。后来又去了时尚集团旗下的《男人装》,就是市场总监。后面又去了美空网做市场VP,就是负责商业化和融资这样,一直都算是在外人看来,和美女打交道比较多的岗位上工作。

PingWest品玩:一辈子的工作就是跟姑娘们打交道。

狄千皓:嗯,是只能跟姑娘们打交道。(笑)其实现在我在大力发展男性网红。

具体地说,我们工作有三部分,第一部分就是你们理解的“网红孵化”。第二点我们会做孵化出来的网红,或者已经成型的网红的商业化,可能我的商业化不愿意只是给他开个淘宝店卖东西,我更愿意把他经营成一个个人品牌。第三点可能我们会引入一些海外的网红进来,来刺激这个市场的发展,也更好的服务一些B端的品牌客户。

PingWest品玩:所以每天有多少想当网红的小姑娘联系你?是见面还是?

狄千皓:我很讨厌见活人,我非常非常讨厌见活人,因为见够了。简历的话,我现在每天看简历的数量不会低于三位数,也就是要看一百出头。我最少每天要看到一百个姑娘的照片,这其中高矮胖瘦、美的丑的,什么样的都有。

PingWest品玩:丑的也有?

狄千皓:对,丑的也有。你完全想象不到,学历高的学历低的;穿得多的穿的少的;清晰的不清晰的;PPT格式的、图片格式的,Word格式的,还有其他一些你根本就不知道这是什么格式的格式。

PingWest品玩:所以要当网红的话,应该给你发什么材料?

狄千皓:我们是这样的,我们在全国各地都会有负责拓展人的这种经纪人,就是一线的执行人,他们每天会给我汇总很多资料过来。其实除了刚才说的照片之外,也会有视频和音频,当然音频非常的少,可能两三百个里面会有一个,她会觉得自己的声音特别好,要突出表现一下,但往往也都不怎么样。

PingWest品玩:什么样的视频?

狄千皓:视频呢,偶尔会看到那种,哇,这个有点限制级的,也会看到。但一般看到这样的,我都会跟一线的执行人员说,就把这个人Pass掉吧。因为我们是这样的,我认为我们还是要在国家规则范围之内做生意。这种姑娘的话,可能就会……(笑)

PingWest品玩:限制级的多吗?

狄千皓:也不多,和音频的出现数量差不多一致,几百个里面,会有一两个这种的。

PingWest品玩:大部分人凭什么觉得为什么她们能红起来?

狄千皓:大部分认为我能红的原因就是因为我美,这是占比最大的一个原因。还有一部分原因她就说,哎,我也没有觉得红的那个人比我好多少,这是第二种原因。第三种是,我也不知道我能不能红,反正我也没什么事儿干,试试呗,这是绝大多数是这三种。

偶尔偶尔会有第四种,这种人对自己的未来考虑的特别清晰,这种人我认为是合作时候的极品,但这种人相当少。可能目前为止也就个位数。她非常明白,我为什么要做这个事,我是为了赚钱还是为了赚名,我赚钱要赚到什么程度,赚名要赚到什么程度,我后面要怎么走,她和我是个什么样的关系,她会需要我来做什么,她能帮我做到什么,她能给我给到什么,她会清晰到这种程度。因为既然是个人IP化,或者把一个单个团队当成一个项目来运作。你既然是项目,就需要有一个相对清晰的发展路径和思考路径。这个非常重要。

res02_attpic_brief

(网红发展史,最早的一批 “ 网络红人 ” 来自于 BBS 和聊天室,在媒介技术尚不发达的年代,她们更多通过文字的美感和静态文艺的照片来吸引粉丝。其中代表为安妮宝贝。)

PingWest品玩:网红们都是什么背景?具体会给你发什么?

狄千皓:绝大多数人都是给一个类似传统模卡一样的照片的集合,就是一张图里面P很多张照片。然后还有一定数量的人是给个PPT,介绍自己曾经做过哪些事情。

实际上我们发现,许多网红的简历非常像过去的一些北漂的草根演员和模特。也确实是现在从那个人群里面,相对来说更容易出现中小量级的网红。因为她们的自身条件,表现自己的能力和欲望都比正常人,或者说比普通的人要好很多。

PingWest品玩:所以你们更喜欢什么样的人?你刚刚说思路清晰,但是然后呢?

狄千皓:对网红而言,我认为我还是要看基本的个人素质。个人素质可能包括这么几方面:第一你的形象,形象包括长相和身材;第二,你的声音;第三,你自己想成名或者想成功的这种欲望有多少。

第三点我重点说明一下:很多事情,如果这个人本身并不想做,我只是给她一个诱惑让她去做的话,对我来说也是一个效率非常低的事情。因为你既然要做这个事,我们肯定希望能够速度更快,那不如说我们找一些本身欲望就强烈的人。如果她只是说混混日子这样的话,我们一般认为,即使她真进入了这个行业她也不会有什么作为。

PingWest品玩:形象上什么要求?有标准的“网红脸”吗?

狄千皓:其实我们更强调上镜,上镜的标准是:你要巴掌脸,脸要小、五官要清秀、要有轮廓感,可能相对来说下巴尖一点,太阳穴饱满一些,可能会有这样一些基本的点。

但是这个有可能不是绝对的。我怎么判断长相好坏呢?我可能会把一个我难以做决定的资料,我们会给一批不同行业的人,让他们对这个人粗糙的打个分。比如1到10分,可能网红至少要8分。

PingWest品玩:身材什么要求?比如是不是网红最好都要有事业线?

狄千皓:这个我不认为是绝对的。可能你身材非常丰满,确实容易获得初期的眼球吸引。

但说实话,身材丰满的人太多了,身材丰满已经不太能够作为标志化的符号提炼出来,更适合做群体性的事件。比如我们扔一批几十个网红出来,可能这一拨都是非常丰满的人,这个群容易获得眼球。但单个人能不能出来,光身材丰满已经不够了,还是要看能不能有更多的特点在身上。

而且这个个人特点必须必单纯丰满更加稀缺,比如说童颜巨乳、擅长搞笑,拥有才艺,撒娇卖萌,非常犀利,完全有悖于大家的传统认知,或者说非常有能力,甚至说是个大胸学霸,甚至超强的设计师。这样的人算是极品,我们也在寻找中。

PingWest品玩:如果别的条件不错,但形象差一点的话,可以整容吗?

狄千皓:可以呀,我认为整容是这个行业不能忽略的一环。如果她真的非常想吃这碗饭,但是她确实又形象上有问题的话,那她不整容怎么能够留在这个行业呢?

PingWest品玩:你会组织网红们整容吗?

狄千皓:我可能不会组织,但是有些人我可能真的会建议她整容。这个是这样的,我可能会为大家去选择靠谱的机构,去争取更多的权利,但是你说会不会直接送你去整容,或者要求你去整容,这个我不会。我只是说,刚才我说的,我会给你个建议,但是我也不是要你百分之百的听,你自己决定到底要不要听。就是和后面我们说的付费培训一样,我只是给你这个建议,听不听决定权在你。因为我也不敢说我说的所有的话都是百分之百是对的。

PingWest品玩:还有别的特点吗?比如网红是什么地方的人更多?

狄千皓:东北多、江浙一带多、成都多,传统地区出美女帅哥的地方,基本上都多。我说实话,东北真的是占一个相当一部分的市场。

PingWest品玩:为什么?

狄千皓:我认为和东北人民的这个,怎么说呢,精神素质有关。他们确实是首先都比较乐观,第二大部分东北的朋友们其实形象都还挺好的,特别是女孩,个子高、皮肤白、眼睛大,这是很多东北姑娘的一个特征。然后性格又比较乐观,所以说确实是非常容易在刚开始的时候就给人留下深刻的印象。

tianxian

(2002年-2005年,随着拍摄技术的革新,一种新的称谓 “ 拍客 ” 逐渐产生,网红也开始演变为以图片为主。在这个阶段,开始有人逐渐意识到网红的潜在经济价值,早期的网红和网红炒作者开始出现。图为2005年曾经红极一时的 “ 天仙妹妹 ” 尔玛依娜,当时据称是网友在旅行中偶尔发现,后被证明为炒作。)

PingWest品玩:好,那假设我是一个女生,有你刚才说的特点,比如说我就是个童颜巨乳,东北人,还有成名的强烈欲望,我就想红,好,现在你把我签进来了,你会怎么对待我?

狄千皓:我会先判断你需不需要接受一定程度的培训。比如说你需不需要接受跳舞啊、唱歌啊,或者其他方面的培训。因为有的时候你以为的好,和大众认为的好之间是有明显的区别的。在这个过程当中,我们会尝试挖掘你身上的更多特点。

PingWest品玩:也就是说,我可能要先去试一下镜?

狄千皓:是这样,我们先帮你找一个适合你的平台,让你去尝试一下,有可能是个直播平台,有可能是一些线下的合作,也有可能是我们会专门为她拍摄一组照片,然后投放到网络上,看看大众的反应。

PingWest品玩:要我拍什么样的照片?

狄千皓:基本上会有三种,清新可爱范儿的,非常性感范儿的,还有一种可能要看这个人的情况去自由发挥。有可能是比较正式的,比较高雅,有可能是比较居家的,比较休闲的,甚至有可能是一组看上去是自拍的照片。

PingWest品玩:然后会打上标题,“XXX私照流出”之类的?

狄千皓:会做各种各样的标题。

PingWest品玩:在这个过程中,淘汰概率有多大,如一说开始给你的有一百个人,你真正觉得有签约意向的有多少人?十个?

狄千皓:我认为不能说签约意向,而是你接触完了之后认为可以值得培养的,绝对是个位数,绝对是个位数。

PingWest品玩:五个人?三四个人?

狄千皓:我认为五个人上下浮动。基本上是这样,我们可能会同批的签很多人进来,都会去做刚才我说的那些事情,甚至像我们也会通过自己控股的家族或者工会把她们直接投放到秀场平台、直播产品中去,甚至也会直接推荐她们去演一些网剧,或者网络大电影,甚至有些我们合作的传统媒体的通告节目,我们会送她去上,因为她们本身都具备这个基础素质。但其中我们可能在经过几周的接触之后,我们会去重点推荐深度培养的,可能是我刚才说的,只有几个人。

PingWest品玩:怎么叫做“重点培养”?

狄千皓:比如说重点培养或者深度培养什么样的程度呢,就可能我们会优先把更好的机会给到一些,我们预判这个事情做完了之后,网络曝光量很高的,而且非负面的,这样的我们会优先推荐你。可能我们花钱买到的,或者合作置换到的一些推广位置,我们会优先给到你。甚至说一些能够和名人,和知名演员合作或者接触的机会,我们会优先给到你,或者其他的一些在主流媒体上曝光的机会会优先给到你。

64198375

(早期网红中最为著名的 “ 芙蓉姐姐 ”。她以摆 S 曲线的炒作和极其自恋的语气出道,获得了难以想象的曝光量。在此之后一批 “ 审丑 ” 网红希望模仿她的形象,但都没有成功。现在回头看,芙蓉姐姐的意义莫过于为网红工业的基本规则打下基础:1.网红的核心不在于美貌与作品,而在于迎合大众的趣味。2.只需要有足够的热点事件、炒作与曝光,任何人都可以成为网络的主角。)

PingWest品玩:那我要是投了照片了,但是效果一般,你们怎么办?

狄千皓:这个时候两个方面,一个是刚才我说的,我会建议你去培训。如果你不愿意去培训,你觉得你不能够承担这个成本,而且我现在也觉得没必要替你承担这个费用的时候,我们会鼓励你再坚持一段时间。

在这个坚持的过程当中,我们会帮她做很多尝试,比如说可能穿衣的风格上,是不是改成Cosplay,然后把她的整体形象进行调整,比如我们可能会先尝试几个主题给她扣上去,比如如果说最近可能有个二次元的动漫非常火,那我们是不是考虑让你cos一下,比如说最近可能《美队3》的电影非常火,那我是不是让你尝试着cos其中一个主题,然后生产一些内容。

在这个时候我还会再不浪费成本的前提下,或者说不额外产生成本的前提下,为你匹配一些推广资源,看看我们做了些尝试之后,帮你引入一些流量进来,你能不能把人留得住。大概这个工作可能会持续一个月到两个月之间。如果说一个月到两个月之后,你还积攒不起来基础的人气的话,那我认为可能你确实需要重新考虑一下。

PingWest品玩:要拥有多少粉丝的话我才算是混出来了?你们有红线吗?

狄千皓:我认为是这样的,在秀场或者直播平台,你的收入能够确保你坚持下去。当然,可能你有些粉丝现在不愿意为你花钱,但是他们对你的关注度很高,他每天都会来看你,或者给你留言,或者跟你互动,这也很有价值。有时候你精心准备直播内容之后,你发现没有人来看,没有人认真看,这个时候其实对这些小男孩或者小女孩的打击其实也非常大。

至于说你问有没有一个固定的数字化的量化的标准,比如是不是到五百,到一千,到五千、到一万,这个没有恒定的。有可能你有一万粉丝,结果你这一万粉丝其实都只是泛泛的路人粉,不愿意和你产生更多的互动和交流,你没有任何特别也可能你只有几百个粉丝,但这几百个粉丝都非常关心你,知道你的昵称,知道你的星座,知道你的生日,知道你爱吃什么不爱吃什么,每天都愿意来给你留言的时候,这更能催化你继续留在这个行业里面去做,不断地努力下去。

PingWest品玩:所以准备直播究竟是一种什么样的体验?

狄千皓:我要纠正一下许多人的一种观念,就是直播很简单,开个摄像头就可以了,不是这样的。绝大多数做直播的这些年轻人,她可能一天要在这个地方,在直播平台上去展示自己,不停的展示自己两三个小时,一个月要连续展示二十几天,可能才能够各个平台对她们的一个最低标准的要求。

一个人连续不断的生产内容,应对受众这是个非常非常累,非常非常痛苦的事情。可能很多朋友都没有这个感受,但我就举个例子,你每天都在缺乏伴奏的情况下唱KTV,清唱唱歌,每天唱三个钟头,这三个钟头之内,你唱的歌是不能够重复的,连续唱二十天。你可以试试这是个什么样的感受。

所以对于直播,我们会有许多方面的要求。有些甚至是非常细节的要求,你可能如果适合比较萌系的话,那你是不是放两个布娃娃在自己的前面,对吧。如果说你就是比较高冷范儿的话,那你是不是穿个职业装。

PingWest品玩:可我之前也没有直播过,狄老师教我几个能吸粉的动作呗?

狄千皓:我认为绝大部分女孩刚开始的时候最好还是能够做一些比较可爱,比较卡哇伊的动作。轻易不要选择短发这种发型,因为短发这种发型比长发这种发型更挑剔人。脸一定要让人看着觉得很干净,动作的话,我认为,你要有几个动作穿插,首先剪刀手这种,嘟嘟嘴呀,然后包括捏捏耳朵,摸摸鼻子这种小动作很重要,或者说是,如果你头发长的话,用手指去绕头发这些。必要的时候吸吸手指。

还要就是有如果说你能演奏某个乐器的话,那就把你的乐器放在你的身边直接演奏,或者说你能做菜,那你就在一个可以做菜的地方去进行直播。

PingWest品玩:粉丝们来了,我说什么话能讨他们开心?

狄千皓:肯定要说好听的。如果你特别有特色之后,你可以以骂网友的方式来出名,也可以。但是骂网友要非常讲究技巧,你在骂网友的同时,让他得到一种满足感,而不要伤害他的感情。用骂的方式表达对一个人的爱,

你可以这么说,比如你可以说,打个比方说,“你们怎么可以这么晚了还不休息,还在这里陪我熬夜呢,我很心疼的,你们赶快去休息吧。”类似这样的。

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(在 2007 年之后,网红开始逐渐成为了一个产业,不断有各种各样的网络红人出现,博客和视频网站的推动也使得网红的展示方式更加多元化。在诸多的网红之中,2009年 “奶茶妹妹”章泽天的走红,当为其中的传奇,她不仅成功从高中生一直红到了大学,甚至最终成为了京东创始人刘强东的妻子。)

PingWest品玩:我弄了这些以后,人气果然就上来了,也有人愿意给我投东西了,也有收入了,我跟你们怎么分呢?

狄千皓:这个是有一定的比例的,我可以说我们拿的比较少,我们还是让这个网红本人拿得更多。只不过你到了这个阶段之后,我从公司的角度而言,我会帮你做更多的商业化,例如会去帮你接一些游戏的合作,接一些服装的拍摄工作,这些服装可能就不再是非常粗糙的服装单品,而有可能是一些中小型的服装品牌。会去帮你推荐一些更好的通告和活动,让你能有更高的曝光率,让你的标签不只是一个草根主播。

PingWest品玩:那现在,我就算是一个中级网红了?

狄千皓:对,我认为可以算是一个中级网红了。

PingWest品玩:中级网红在你签的这些人里面占多少比例?

狄千皓:我认为在我签约的比例,我控制的一直是个金字塔结构。但是说实话,可能确实,这个程度的中级网红量相对来说比较大,她和下一个台阶,和原始的那批草根人群,或者小网红之间的数量量级差别不大。因为我非常相信中坚力量,中间带的这个力量。

PingWest品玩:但我什么作品都没有,怎么宣传我呢?

狄千皓:这个可能就是公司的优势和长处,我们会在你不经意之间已经帮你积累好你的作品。这个时候甚至有可能我们会帮你尝试创作一些属于你自身的东西,不再只是图片那么简单,有可能是专属的视频素材,或者音频素材。

PingWest品玩:你会给我炒新闻吗?

狄千皓:会,但不会恶意的去炒。我得承认,我没有说创造出来那种短时间之内在社会上特别大效应的话题或者人物,因为,我认为我们还是要遵循社会的游戏规则,还是要遵循法制,我不是愿意太挑战打擦边球这种事情。或者说,我们可以靠情色做一种吸引手段,但是你不能去卖弄色情。

PingWest品玩:到这个程度我应该有多少粉丝了?

狄千皓:我认为你到这个程度,我们不说泛泛的粉丝,我说对你粘性和关注度非常高的粉丝,应该是在接近十万,十万上下。

PingWest品玩:加上微粉的话,我应该有五十万粉?

狄千皓:我认为可能到不了五十万这么高。

PingWest品玩:三十万?

狄千皓:二三十。

PingWest品玩:所以到这个时候我应该每个月挣多少钱了?

狄千皓:我只是认为到这个程度,可能你每个月的收入应该是在一万到五万人民币之间,就是纯粹的税后收入。

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(另一个是早期秀场时代。大多数人接触直播是在 “ 17 ” 出现之后。但实际上在直播模式出现之前。秀场和视频聊天室就已经成为了许多网红挣钱的途径。但早期的秀场内容多为小众的游戏,或者涉及到一些色情的擦边球,这限制了它进一步的大众化潜力。)

PingWest品玩:光靠贴图,我能持续吸引住粉丝吗?

狄千皓:因为刚才说了,你不只是贴图,每天还有直播内容的生产,可能在这个期间我们还会定期的去安排一些事件,安排一些通告性质的活动,一些互动,甚至已经开始做和你相关的周边。

PingWest品玩:跟我相关的周边?比如娃娃吗?

狄千皓:娃娃这个成本太高了,可能抱枕之类的。

PingWest品玩:也有娃娃,也有了粉丝,谁来管理我这些粉丝呢?

狄千皓:当然我们希望你能够亲自介入到和粉丝的互动中来。但有的时候公司也会有专门的工作人员来帮你梳理这个。

PingWest品玩:好,所以现在我是一个中级网红,但我现在作品还是不多,有一点其他的作品。但是忠诚的粉丝还是从最初的直播上来。我直播现在内容也都是那一套,弄得感觉自己快枯竭了,竞争对手级别越来越高,这个时候该怎么办,我的网红之路怎么走下去?

狄千皓:这个时候是这样的,我认为你肯定牵扯到一个还是不断充电的过程。我拿游戏举个例子,游戏你会有一段非常枯燥的升级期,这段枯燥的升级期之后可能你就转职了,就进阶了。我认为这个时候你也需要做类似的事情,可能你确实就是需要去两三个方式提升自己,第一可能我们基本素质的培训,你这个时候是不是要去强化唱歌跳舞表演方面的能力,然后另外一个,可能要进行一次范围更广阔的炒作。还有可能你是不是要开始去做一些自身形象上的转变。

PingWest品玩:怎么转,我之前靠这一套好不容易走出来了,怎么转?

狄千皓:我认为是这样的,还是每个人会有每个人的不同,我们还是说,如果假定你是一个童颜巨乳的妹子,这个时候你看,大家觉得你除了童颜巨乳之外,脑子里面还有东西。

PingWest品玩:可是没有。

狄千皓:那你就要去有啊。

PingWest品玩:怎么办?

狄千皓:所以我对很多孩子的建议,到这个时候我会说,你多读点书,多看看新闻。

PingWest品玩:你会给网红们放《新闻联播》吗?

狄千皓:不是放《新闻联播》,但是你要多看看书,多看看新闻,你要让你的形象和内在更丰满起来。

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(2011 年 – 2013 年,微博的出现将“网红”带入了移动互联网时期,也把网红这个概念大大拓展了。在这个阶段,广义的网红已经迅速发展成了网络影响力人士的总称。而就狭义的网红 “ 以展示容貌和表演技能为主要生产内容的网红”来说,移动互联网的意义在于,网红变成了可以触摸的对象,并且可以获得持续的内容更新,不再会像从前一样需要不断的依靠事件和图片积累热度。此外,淘宝店的兴盛也使得网红变现变得更为容易。最后,微博也在通过各种各样的方式来鼓励网红的形成。这一个阶段也是微整形迅速发展的阶段,导致一大批网红审美观的女生开始出现。)

PingWest品玩:哎呀,好累,不想做啦。

狄千皓:如果说你到了这个阶段突然自己懈怠或者松懈了,那我觉得你退出这个行业吧,或者不要再做这个行业了,因为我说了,这个行业是非常残酷也非常辛苦的。你如果这个时候觉得,哎,我也不想做什么,或者我做了什么也没有效果,我也不想再坚持了,那么你就退出。

PingWest品玩:我连中级网红都保不住啦?

狄千皓:因为这个行业迭代也非常快。半年到一年所有的人都会迭代。

PingWest品玩:我不想做了,我换方式变现,比如卖淘宝店可以吗?

狄千皓:可以呀,但是你卖淘宝店就一定能成功吗?很多人觉得卖淘宝店是个很容易的事情,甚至也觉得,我完全不靠公司经营就可以维持生活。但其实淘宝店现在已经变成一个非常重的产业,你如果做淘宝店的话,不管以什么样的程度,都要介入到生产货源这个问题上去,你都要介入整个生产到销售的流水线。

我就问很多网红,或者到这个阶段的人,你真的有信心能做到整个产业链吗?你要,OK,你要选择板式,要生产,然后你要去发货,你要销售,你还要负责后面的客服维护,你一个人真的做得到吗?或者你一个人起个团队你真能做得到吗?如果你真能做得到的话,那为什么他们多开淘宝店的人,不是每个人都赚的那么多呢?

PingWest品玩:那我就不红了,怎么办呢?

狄千皓:我一直非常强调这个人本身的心思和状态,因为说白了,别人能给你再多,给的也只是辅助。可能我们说和范冰冰范爷同期的演员有很多很多,为什么最后只出来了一个范爷?所以我们强调本人的欲望和动力非常重要。

在转型期间,你确实可能要面对一段时间没有任何的增长,可能反而有下滑。这个时候公司不会笼统的给你一个建议,我们可能会根据你当时非常具体的情况,去帮你找针对的方式。但必须你要改变才行,刚才你说形象上改变,我靠这个形象已经吃了几个月了,我为什么要改变。你这一个形象维持几个月了,你不改变你干嘛?

PingWest品玩:那我,或许很多人的网红之路就真的到此为止了?

狄千皓:会呀,因为人都很懒的,懒的真是绝大多数。

PingWest品玩:很多人会在中级网红这一阶段,就会觉得…

狄千皓:就会在中级网红这个阶段销声匿迹,甚至在还没到中级网红这个阶段销声匿迹。所以说这个工作是非常辛苦的。

PingWest品玩:销声匿迹以后,我还能直播嘛?还会有人看我嘛?

狄千皓:应该都会有,但是我就不再关心了。

PingWest品玩:你们还是会愿意捧最热的一批?

狄千皓:我们愿意捧最努力的一批。

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(14 – 15年的视频直播时代:在 14 年之后,视频迅速发展。短视频的火爆,造就了一批以制造有趣内容为主的新生代网红。游戏直播火热培养了大部分网民观看直播的习惯,而以 17 为代表的新一代直播类 APP 的出现,则把整个直播业带上了风口浪尖。新一代的网红开始更多的使用直播、短视频,微电影等多种网络推广方式,辅以社交媒体全面包装自己。她们已经成为了独立于传统娱乐产业之外的新生力量。)

PingWest品玩:好,我听了这个话以后,我决定开始努力了,我又开始努力了,回到当初,就是网红的这个部分。现在我要成为一个上级网红,我要一年挣一百万,或者上百万,我要成为那个新闻里面的人,现在想想办法吧,怎么办,我愿意干,看书什么的都行。

狄千皓:我们可能会帮你找一些大的节目来做,帮你上一些真人秀,可能有一些机会我们能够预判出来,在这个行业里是非常好的机会,我们会帮你争取。

PingWest品玩:你会给我一个标签吗?

狄千皓:我认为可能标签很早就有了,这个时候可能会帮你换标签,让你不再只是童颜巨乳。

这个时候需要一些更详细的内容打造,过去的内容说白了,谁都能来做。那这个时候就要有一些自己独特性质的内容出来,可能过去前几个月靠卖脸就能完成了,这个时候要靠卖脸加卖脑子。

PingWest品玩:你能不能给个详细点的操作方法,我不懂呀。

狄千皓:这就很难,真的是说凭空说一个详细的操作方法。

PingWest品玩:假如说我学物理的。

狄千皓:那就可以比如说打扮得非常性感,讲物理课,讲物理的考试习题,这个也超火,这也超赞的。你可以,甚至你可以去验证一些谣言的真实性。

PingWest品玩:我学核物理的。清华大学核物理系,然后考研究生…

狄千皓:那我认为你可能不会,你从一开始就不会接触到我。那我认为国家一定会把你招标过去,然后去做高精尖研究的。

PingWest品玩:如果真的有这样的人愿意当网红,你会觉得奇怪吗,还是会很神奇?

狄千皓:哇塞,这样就是极品呀,智商又高,然后形象又好,对吧,身材又赞,哇,这样直接是极品呀,我认为这可能说是中国网红时代的娜塔莉波特曼呀。

PingWest品玩:那么对大多数人来说,没有这样的特点呀?

狄千皓:是的,每个人自己看自己都认为自己是独一无二的,但是你放到一个大的量上去看的时候,其实就是同质化很严重的。所谓的网红,她满足所有的受众可能是满足了两点,所以人们才会这么喜欢她们。第一点就是说,满足一种你渴望得到,渴望拥有的想象;然后另外一种是满足你,你正常生活中完全可能得到的想象。

我举两个例子,我先说男同志的这点,落实一点,绝大多数的男人都会喜欢胸大、腰细、腿长。但是他们一旦要到找女朋友或者找老婆的时候就会说,哎呀,我要找个踏实的,能过日子,能入得厨房,OK。很小鸟依人的,很体贴很温柔的这种。

PingWest品玩:如果我确实平平无奇,有没有可能性,通过硬炒,把一个人给炒起来?

狄千皓:我认为有可能,不过这个要投入的成本非常大,也不太会是我现在要选择的方式。而且我认为这种硬炒,就像你节食减肥一样,可能你会很快的达到一个效果,但是这个效果完全退去的速度可能更快。

PingWest品玩:我通过买新的话题榜,或者通过买什么,通过一个热点事件或者怎么样的,强行推出一个人?

狄千皓:我认为强行推出可能不是重点,重点是推出以后要怎么办。

PingWest品玩:就是要保持这个人一个长期的上升价值?

狄千皓:对,因为其实我们在过去这几年的时间里面,这种瞬间就火的人也很多。但他瞬间火完了之后,瞬间就消失了呀。这就是为什么我不太喜欢用负面新闻来炒作的原因,就是来炒作的原因。你像之前有一些纯粹靠负面新闻出名的这些人,现在我们看已经完全消失在大众的视野当中了。

160808y4hsbzea5uzsabhu

(2015年底,以制作吐槽短视频为主的网红 Papi 酱,获得投资,成为了网红事业的新里程碑。在 Papi 酱之后,网红经济成为热词。网红商学院,网红孵化器迅速出现,传统娱乐行业也开始与网红寻求合作。网红已经不再是一个特殊人群,而是互联网对传统娱乐行业的又一次革新与再造。而网红生产,则被快速的推进到流水线化,工业化时代。)

PingWest品玩:你看,到这个程度了,我现在有了一定的个人特色,有一定的垂直细分领域,我有了可能还会有一些作品,这个时候,我可能会追求一个更大的平台,这个时候我怎么跟你们?

狄千皓:如果我做不到你的话,我会帮你去找这个平台。

PingWest品玩:这个时候,我跟你的合作就结束了?

狄千皓:因为我认为是这样的,没有什么合作是终生关系,如果说我在你成长的阶段,我的公司也在不断成长的话,那可能你的下一阶段的需求我也能满足,如果你下一阶段的需求我满足不了的话,那你肯定是要去找能满足你需求的地方。

PingWest品玩:好吧。那意思是不是说,到一定程度,我要逐渐脱离掉网红这个角色?

狄千皓:我认为不用完全脱离,可能在过去几年你会觉得网红是一个没有那么积极向上的标签,但是我认为在这几年,包括未来几年的发展里面,网红会慢慢的成为一个非常正能量的标签,或者会成为一个被行业普遍认可的标签。

我们看一下国外的发展环境,你知道可能国外现在它的网红的分化已经非常细了,而且很多的网红已经开始被时尚行业、影视行业所重视,其实已经取代了传统的明星,甚至已经有了自己独立的虚拟偶像的网红,在欧美,在日本都有。我认为这个发展轨迹在中国也是一样的,现在可能我们至少还是在一个比较初级的成长的阶段,但是可能中国现在确实是任何成长阶段都非常的快,我们会快速的步入那个更正规,更延伸的行业阶段去。

PingWest品玩:听上去好像我又成了传统的艺人,不过是换了一批人包装而已。

狄千皓:刚才我说过了,可能如果我们看视频网站,网剧、网大是影视行业的互联网+的话,那么网红就是明星经济这个行业的互联网+。互联网永远都不是目的,它是手段,它是加速和放大事物的发展。可能我们刚才说投入到一些传统行业当中去,为什么投入到传统行业当中去?是为了赚取更多的利润。

可能有一天我们在推荐演员给知名导演的时候,可能都是新人,一个可能从科班院校刚刚学习毕业出来的新人,另外一个可能没有那么系统化的科班学习,但是她可能已经在互联网行业的成长中,已经有了非常稳定的一批愿意支持她的粉丝。两个人我们判断在个人素质上没有太大的差别,这个时候对导演来说他该怎么选择?他很有可能会选择带有粉丝的这个人,说白了先天的带着票房属性,她的粉丝一定会为她的电影买单。

PingWest品玩:但你说的,我的粉丝永远会是我的粉丝吗?即便像papi酱这样的,她也不可能做到永远火下去,一年后可能什么都没有了。

狄千皓:行业是很残酷的,这十年来你能记住的明星演员又有多少?你记住的这些人现在又过得怎么样?

PingWest品玩:你出一个网红出来得多长时间?

狄千皓:我希望能够更快,不断地快,我希望最后可能能快到一个月左右,就能让他从原来没有收入,变成有稳定的收入,甚至最好能更快,三周。我希望最后能够提炼到这种程度,因为我就希望是批量的,快速孵化初期和中期的网红。

PingWest品玩:三周捧出一个网红,可能吗?

狄千皓:我们正在不断的完善这个过程和手段,让生产能够单点复制变成批量复制。

PingWest品玩:然后你们还要引进国外网红?这个怎么个引法呢?

狄千皓:其实就是和他们签合作,做他们的代理。我把他们引进来就是纯粹TO B了。比如说可能这个人他在欧美也只是个素人,可能我们会把他培育成网红,在中国火了之后,可能再反向打回去。因为其实这个事情在足球行业里面你是能看到的,这个球星来中国的俱乐部之前也不是很出名的,结果他在中国的俱乐部上做了一点成绩之后,再反向回到国外,你发现他更受到关注把海外的素人,慢慢的尝试朝中国培育成网红这个路子,我也只是在尝试,可能无法说太多,我只能说我现在正在筹备我在东欧的分公司。

PingWest品玩:也是一个美女?

狄千皓:传统世界名模诞生比较多的地区之一。

PingWest品玩:比如乌克兰?

狄千皓:确实是我在考虑的国家之一,我现在有两三个国家,在看他们给的政策。

 

相关阅读:

    大疆的归大疆,小米的归小米

    关于 B 站无聊直播,这是我在现场看到的情况

    别错过,我们要在映客/花椒里直播全世界最大的创客市集,带你看脑洞大开的奇葩产品

    因为坐拥妹子和欲望,于是直播拯救了陌陌

微信订阅 PingWest 品玩请关注公众号:wepingwest ,有品好玩的科技,更早一步看到。


日本建筑控 | 金泽21世纪美术馆

你好,金泽!

在靠近日本海的北陆石川县,有着一座神奇的城市。随着北陆新干线的开通,自京都搭乘JR雷鸟线,只需两个小时十分钟便可轻易逃开滚滚人流,到达这个风景、人文与美食毫不逊色的秘密花园。很多朋友所纠结的问题:如何在旺季游日本?我的答案总是快来金泽开启新世界的大门啊~

(上图:金泽城)
(上图:自兼六园俯瞰天际线舒展的金泽)

这个从20层建筑里俯瞰便可一览全貌,被三四条公交线路环绕的亲民小城,让闯入者如我很容易感受到一种私有的温柔。那些唯美而清寂的街道,适时热闹一下的市场,街角冒着热气的小丸子摊与古朴神社,是步行爱好者的理想地。

美术馆!

再熟悉不过的,世界上因为一座美术馆而被拯救的典型城市案例是西班牙的毕尔巴鄂:古根海姆美术馆为这座转型中的旧港口带来了无限生机。纵使那些绮丽大都会如纽约巴黎,也都为拥有一座动人的美术馆而骄傲着。而古都金泽,虽然有着享誉日本的历史名园兼六园,但是真正的世界名片却是普利策奖获得者妹岛和世与西泽立卫的经典作品——21世纪美术馆。

(上图:妹岛奶奶镇楼)
(上图:来自21世纪美术馆官网的介绍)

与姿势高昂的古根海姆不同的是,21世纪美术馆采取的是伏于大地的低调身姿,“希望能成为任何人都能随时造访、可为人们提供各种邂逅和体验机会的公园一样的场所”。这是一座没有正、背立面之分,没有主、次入口之分的圆形玻璃幕墙建筑,在现代性的外表下颇具“不二”禅意。

(上图:21世纪美术馆鸟瞰全景)

若说此行最大的遗憾,是由于美术馆过于接地气,现场竟然没有一个游览角度可以像宣传图中那样俯瞰全貌。(建议骨灰粉造访尝试随身携带大疆无人机~)

退而求其次,上一个手抖的立面全景图。

巡礼!

Wikipedia上解释美术馆的得名由来为:“金泽21世纪美术馆,将20世纪的 3M主张(也就是人类至上、金钱至上与唯物主义;Man、Money、Materialism)转化成21世纪的 3C主张(也就是知觉、团体智慧与共存;Consciousness、Collective Intelligence、Co-existence)这 3C也就是此美术馆的成立宗旨和展览方向。基于这样的理念,此美术馆是免费入场的。”

美术馆有地面两层空间和部分地下一层。二层便是鸟瞰图上自圆形顶部升起的立方体,为使均质的形态不再沉默而设。从首层功能上来看,白色的交流区与蓝色的展览区各占据了一半的领域。而辅助功能房间也很好的隐匿在流动的平面中。虽然并不如宣传中完全免费,但是美术馆中收费的部分(在平面中由红线圈出)只占据了展览区不到一半的面积。算是名副其实的市民游乐场。

玻璃立面外沿的一圈草地上,散布着来自不同艺术家的室外展陈装置。这里也是儿童的游乐场。大草坪与内部的公共空间互为风景,常常有坐在窗边向外发呆的人。

(上图:Olafur Eliasson 设计的Colour activity house 2010)

(上图:右侧的大管子,是Florian Claar 设计的 Klangfeld Nf.3 Fur Alina 2004)

既然深受小朋友的爱戴,21世纪美术馆责无旁贷的担任起社会教育的职责。这里有专门的托儿所与儿童创作空间,定期举办活动。

(上图:路过儿童创作室时拍摄。并为美术馆员工启发儿童理解建筑的方式赞叹。)

方形的展室与弧型幕墙之间组成的“负”空间被很好的利用为公共休息、装置展览、与餐厅。那些看平面图以为会冲撞圆形的方的“角”,在实际体验中并没有不适的感觉。相反的,正是这些容纳了支撑结构的方形框架,解放了开放空间里柱子的支撑作用,使其可以纤细至120mm。也达成了建筑师试图消解界面而凸显空间的主旨。

与明亮而灵动的幕墙一带空间相互补的,是纵深方向上理性而简洁的走廊空间。

彼时的售票展览区是关于日本311大地震之后的建筑实践特展,展品详尽丰富,自不同角度阐述着全日本建筑师对于东北三县重建的密切关怀与义不容辞的使命感。观后颇受震动。

印象深刻的是关于永续材料和生态建筑的反复试验。以及日本建筑教学中对于一个赈灾项目的设计探究——两座单层小建筑的排布方式,经过了7、8轮几十个精细模型的逐步推敲和筛选,最终得出一个形态上或许在我国建筑生眼中颇为“平庸”,却切中要害的方案。这些年来只见到日本建筑师队伍的成就,殊不知其背后的无比扎实的基本功训练以及严谨的科学精神才真是甩人千里的差距。

由于展览区不许摄影,所以只拍到一些公共区域的临时展品。关于狗狗家具的设计,其中有日本知名建筑师们的作品,同时也在网络上向所有用户开放征集创意。

当然,最著名的,也是最受欢迎的永久展品,是由Leandro Erlich 于2004年设计的The Swimming Pool,宣传的图是这样的。

往往一个很简单的idea会创作出最具力量的作品,这个游泳池便如是。从游泳池外部参观是免费的,也由此形成美术馆内部人气最高的室外庭院。参观者,尤其是儿童,对与池底“互看”这个行为乐此不疲。即便知道了其中玄机,也禁不住多瞧上几眼。

如果下到游泳池底部,是需要从售票展览区域的6号展室进入。同时为了保证体验效果,会采取一定的流量限制。上层的水影投射进蓝色池低,随阳光的变幻而或清澈或斑驳。如何在水底留个影,是最显示创意的时刻。

如游泳池般的永久展陈在美术馆中还有很多,有些不允许拍照只能寻觅官方的图片。另有一处展品镶嵌在洗手间中,名叫You Renew You,介绍词为“在洗手间设立的祭坛上,以影像颂扬了人体血液循环、眼泪、及排泄机能等净化系统。”刚进美术馆上厕所归来时瞥见有点吓人。暂时没图,不如卖个关子;)

左上:People’s Gallery 右上:Green Bridge 左下:L’ Origine du monde 右下:喜闻乐见的SANNA自己设计的兔子椅

美术馆中相邻的两家贩卖部也是可以逛很久的宝藏,许多图书图册和创意商品都是想要抱回家的好物件。文艺青年们在这里购置手信,相信一定是逼格满满。

此外,在美术馆中最爱一部分是沟通一层与负一层的无障碍电梯。完全脱离“电梯井”的概念,由液压支撑柱将整个玻璃电梯盒子托举送达上层。几个小朋友在电梯里乐此不疲的上上下下。建筑的一个细节会给人带来如此多的欢乐,还是有些感动的。

同样精彩的细部图再奉上几张。尤其是双层玻璃腔的演讲厅十分钟爱。

关于如此经典的建筑作品已有太多专业分析,此处就不一一赘述。除了白色材料维护难度高在个别角落有些发黑以外,实在没有任何瑕疵可供吐槽。整体的观感是兴奋的朝圣般心情。而且无论是建筑爱好者亦或是普通观光客,在这里都会扎实感受到美好建筑带来的人文关怀的光芒。

不说再见!

美术馆以外的金泽依然太多目的地值得推荐,以后会寻觅时机一一展开。近日看到有网友扒出了最爱的柯南君造访金泽的截图(来自《加贺百万石推理之旅》,并没有死人的推理剧集),虽然这个故事推理情节略平淡,但是对风景还原度百分百,其中也有21世纪美术馆的桥段哦。不如就让柯南君先做一回预告嘉宾吧~

(上图:造型狂野的金泽火车站鼓门与金泽城)
(上图:兼六园与近江町海鲜市场)

作为一个有力的结尾,对于个人挚爱的这个海鲜市场,势必还要再加一张图才行啊。

更多回答请查看Kuma猫的主页,感谢大家关注专栏日旅记

来源:知乎 www.zhihu.com

作者:Kuma猫

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这个家庭智能种菜机让我觉得自己有点像只饿坏了的山羊

在我这个年纪,太多的人为了 “今天吃什么?”而感到头疼。有时候经常会想;也许成了家就没有这么多的麻烦了。不过,在我向那些已经成家的同事询问时,我发现,这个问题其实根本不会解决,只不过从“今天吃什么?”变成了“今天做什么?”。如果有了孩子,这个问题就变得更加复杂了:不仅仅是要好吃,而且要营养,而且要搭配,最重要的是,一定必须要健康。必须要避免一切各种各样稀奇古怪,让人吃了的化学物质:杀虫剂、除草剂、激素、雾霾沉积还有各种各样的奇怪的东西。

在对健康食品狂热的需求下,很多人选择了回归本质 —— 在阳台种植蔬菜。但是种菜毕竟是个技术活,不说种子的事情,光是光照就很麻烦。更不要说浇水,施肥什么的了……

对于缺乏经验的人来说,种菜时你希望的是这个样子。

zhongcai

然而实际上是这个样子。

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有些大叔有一种更加豪放的玩法,在小区里面种菜 —— 然后和城管、物管叔叔一块分享丰收的喜♂悦。

JXsa-fxsenvn7109601

 

有没有一种办法,能够绅士的种菜呢?

在上海出差的时候,我访问了一家专做 “ 家庭种菜机 ” 的创业团队,它的名字非常简单,叫做友菜。

友菜的原理很简单,家庭种植的水培作物和家庭农场,这其实上已经不是一个新鲜事。就像我一开始提到的那样:由于越来越恶劣的食品安全压力,已经有许多的公司开始试水无土栽培。但是它们中的大多数仍然非常复杂,光是把这些设备装起来就很费工夫,而且看上去非常用户不友好。但友菜就不一样。至少看上去颜值要高上许多。

第三个,如果你把它当成一个智能鱼缸,一个装饰品,它确实还挺好看。

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(当然,要达到这样的完全体,你得先有个精装修和实木地板的房子……)

除此之外,“ 友菜 ” 的特点有三个:第一个是,它的产量相对够大。这台机器有四层,每一层有两组六个插槽。友菜提供的蔬菜品种,大部分三周可以收割一次,也就是说,四个插槽平均下来,一周可以收两斤半菜。

301898657672295813

(感觉一个人可以吃上四到五天的样子)

第二个是,它方便。你不用会配置营养液,不用去挑选种子,也不涉及任何复杂的种植技术。每一周会有人上门配送已经培育好的蔬菜育苗,你全部的要做的事情就是把它放在蔬菜机的插槽里。关注微信公众号后,可以帮你监控植物的状态。

381014122338527724

由于是营养液培植,所以无需施肥等等,也没有土。唯一需要手工做的是,如果上面的指示灯变成了红色,提示你菜没有水了,你得用喷壶在底部灌水进去。

913984958650489576

 

这就成了。

第三点是,你可以在微信上关注你种的菜 …… 额不,关注友菜的微信账号。然后看到你的菜的信息。

91192130442569939

任何问题都可以通过友菜克服进行处理。不过,虽然看上去非常方便,但友菜设备目前似乎还有点贵:目前一次性的种菜机套餐需要大概 5499 元,包括 4299 的设备费用,和 2160 元/年的菜苗配送费。这样算起来大概要运行 2 – 3 年,费用才会与超市的有机蔬菜持平。

不过,友菜团队表示他们有信心在未来进一步降低成本。“ 友菜 ” 的创始团队是一群年轻的学霸:他们来自中科大,上海交大与河南农大。创始人宁博毕业于于中科大化学系,后获得美国布朗大学硕士学位。宁博原来回国创业的目标,是通过互联网与农场合作降低有机蔬菜的成本,让更多的人吃上放心蔬菜。但是后来在创业的过程中,她找到了另一种普及有机蔬菜的方式:把它放到每个家庭的客厅或者厨房里。当更多的用户通过友菜接受有机蔬菜的概念以后,宁博还会计划推出自己的有机蔬菜品牌。

对我来说,我最喜欢的是,这个设备给我带来了一种非常有趣的感觉。

因为友菜的蔬菜是无公害的,而且它又是在家里种植。所以这里的菜基本上可以直接吃。我采访的途中,友菜的工作人员就随手从种菜机上撕了一片小白菜来嚼在嘴里。还邀请我一起参与。

我模仿了一把,结果发现根本停不下来!简直像像种了一袋薯片一样,不过比薯片健康多了。在走之前我把能吃的各个菜都试了一遍。

你想想看,站在种菜机面前,吃这个,拔那个。

shanyang

估计在他们眼里我就是这样的吧……


 

PS:谈谈体验和口感

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罗勒:拥有一种奇妙的口感。我第一次生嚼罗勒,刚入口时候像牙膏,过后有点咸味,最后感觉像是妈妈炖肉以后留下的汤锅味道。吃完以后满口都是香的。

823265786397995043

茼蒿:下在火锅里,很多人讨厌。但是生吃的味道很清爽!让人想到初夏时候的雨水。

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罗马生菜:嚼的时候,口感特别丰润,汁水也很多,感觉简直像是在吃一片薄薄的肉一样,而且自带咸味。

shanyang

(嚼嚼嚼……)

相关阅读:

微信订阅 PingWest 品玩请关注公众号:wepingwest ,有品好玩的科技,更早一步看到。


比特币连续第三天大涨 最高价格接近600美元

【TechWeb报道】5月29日消息,经历长达5个月左右的低迷期,比特币于本周五开始启动上涨模式。三连涨之后,今天已经破599美元,接近600美元为2014年7月以来新高。

比特币

比特币连续第三天大涨 最高价格接近600美元

根据比特币交易平台OKCOIN的数据,本周日比特币价格一度升至3920人民币/个,折合599美元左右,较前一日涨幅超过10%,为连续第三日大涨。

截至发稿前TechWeb从OKCOIN查询的数据显示,比特币目前价格为3754元左右。

比特币、区块链新闻网站Cryptcoinews周五分析称,比特币上涨主要是由近期人民币贬值带来的中国市场需求推动。该网站在做了技术分析之后,预测比特币价格将涨至500美元。不料仅仅过了数小时,这种虚拟货币的价格便轻松突破了500美元关口。

2013年底,比特币风光无限,价格一度超越黄金,随后形势急转直下,负面消息不断,2014年比特币交易所Mt. Gox的破产申请让比特币遭受的打击达到顶峰。如今,比特币鲜少有人问津,那些“闪亮”的日子早已远去了。

尽管本周比特币价格一度疯涨,但专业人士对其仍不看好。几个月前,比特币核心开发团队中的Mike Hearn在一篇文章中称,比特币已经失败了,因为社区做砸了,更糟糕的是,整个网络已经走到了技术崩溃的边缘。(王卡卡)

蚕豆网微信


如何看待颜宁对韩春雨研究成果的评价?

从哪里看出来这是颜宁的评价?(感谢知友提醒说这就是颜宁的微博)

评价基本中肯准确,但是措辞不够妥当。

考虑到最近的舆论风向,我想其中会有争议的就是关于创新性的评价。“跟风型”这个词用得稍微有点矫枉过正、用力过猛,毕竟不是创新型研究不等于就是跟风型,还有就是“神话”应该是“神化”,出现了错别字。

其实韩老师本人对自己这个项目的评价是非常中肯的,远比圈子里一些广为流传的评价中肯:他认为NgAgo仅仅提供了基因编辑的一种选择,并不能取代或超越CRISPR。

没有创新的成果不可能发表在国际一流期刊上,而这项研究确实又不是媒体中、部分学生中流传的基因编辑原理上的原创,显然,这条微博的对象是那些把这一成果的地位过分夸大的言论,并无不妥。不知道为什么那么多人认为这是一次基因编辑方法概念上、方法上的创新,大概是因为有些不以合成生物学为本专业的同学对基因编辑领域确实不够熟悉,知乎上有合成生物学背景的几位同仁的评价基本都是接近的,中肯的——都不约而同地提到了神化这项成果的问题,综合来看和题主问题中截图的评价至少在内涵上高度一致。
(当然,没有“跟风型”这层意思)

我在其它答案已经指出了,这项成果最大的贡献在于发现了常温下可以使用的NgAgo,而非发明了DNA介导核酸切割或基因编辑。其在基因编辑技术前景最广阔的两大应用领域(农业和基因疗法),受限于ssDNA本身的性质,无法达到或媲美CRISPR的应用价值,参考:
韩春雨团队发现的 NgAgo 基因编辑技术有可能在将来取代 CRISPR 被广泛运用吗? – 知乎用户的回答

从DNA介导核酸加工而言,毕竟7年前就有弗莱堡大学iGEM团队的本科生用同源的的酶做了DNA介导的高温下核酸切割,并且提出了这项技术在基因工程当中的应用展望(下图);2014年又有一篇nature文章DNA-guided DNA interference by a prokaryotic Argonaute珠玉在前。考虑到DNA介导核酸切割这一概念在基因编辑领域“悠久的历史”,甚至可以说2014年的那篇在概念上也谈不上非常原创。

(Figure from Team:Freiburg bioware/Project – 2009.igem.org

我想最近圈子里,尤其是学生群体确实对这项成果的科学意义出现了一定的认识偏差。而受此影响,媒体的一些新闻报道也出现了类似偏差,特别是以下说法:NgAgo在基因编辑能力上超越了CRISPR、NgAgo将成为下一代(第四代)基因编辑工具、该研究开创了DNA介导基因编辑的概念、该研究属于“诺奖级”等等,都是不准确甚至错误的。参考:河北一副教授十年没发文章 一夜变成“诺奖级”科学家

值得指出的是,在上述新闻报道中提到:对于这项新技术将会替代原有技术而成为最实用技术的粗暴说法,韩春雨团队目前比较谨慎。

确实,因为《知识分子》发了一篇情怀大于科学的文章,完全可以理解很多人的心情,但即使是《知识分子》也没有提及“诺贝尔级”这种说法,那可能是因为CRISPR这几年得诺奖呼声较高,有人想当然地认为出现新的基因编辑工具都是“诺奖级”的成果,实际上CRISPR的热度并非完全因为其在基因编辑领域的地位,还有其它应用价值。另外韩老师这项成果目前来看在应用上还无法与CRISPR媲美,只能说有媲美CRISPR的潜力。而诺贝尔奖至少需要一种在概念上、功能上、应用潜力上超越或颠覆CRISPR的技术,对此,显然目前的NgAgo还言之尚早。关于这项成果的专业剖析我在其它答案里已经细致剖析过了,也入选了知乎日报,欢迎探讨。

我想说这个成果做得是非常出色的,发表在国际一流期刊也是恰如其分的。

但个人也不主张现阶段提“诺贝尔级”或者“Science级”,客观来看暂时没有那么大的学术意义。NgAgo从应用前景来讲是无法媲美CRISPR-Cas9的,即使优化也很难,因为使用ssDNA本身是一个硬伤。直接造成在植物基因编辑和人类基因疗法两个领域很难应用,需要in vivo的ssDNA生成技术工具化,现有的几种细胞内制造ssDNA的方法都较为复杂,或依赖于特殊的DNA聚合酶,或依赖于AAV之类的ssDNA病毒,少有能够与NgAgo兼容的系统,且均不如CRISPR直接转录gRNA简便。一项基因编辑技术,如果在未来应用价值最高的农业领域和医疗领域先天不足,前途无疑是黯淡的。牺牲应用上的可能性换来的脱靶率优化得不偿失。最近引发关注的,Nature子刊发表的一篇Excision of HIV-1 DNA by gene editing: a proof-of-concept in vivo study展示使用CRISPR技术清除体内HIV序列的研究(http://www.nature.com/gt/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/gt201641a.html),从原理来讲,NgAgo是做不到的。在农业和基因治疗领域难以使用的技术,知乎上一大波人喊下一代基因编辑技术、申专利打破CRISPR技术垄断,还说能开创多少个亿的大产业——也难怪引人侧目了。

所以要说它“诺贝尔级”、“Science级”、“下一代”、“有大于CRISPR的产业价值”,显然都是有失专业水准的评价,说是“神化”一点也不为过。当然其它潜力是欢迎畅想的,应用领域有短板并不意味着在基础研究领域也价值有限,光凭基础研究的价值获得诺贝尔奖的例子历史上也不是没有,但是现阶段就发了一篇文章,未免话说得太早了。而且应该允许各种不同看法,包括我的个人评价在内,全部留给时间来打脸。但是不管什么说法,首先要有理有据,不然搞得好像同行捧杀一样就不好了。

颜宁作为一位知名学府的学者,给出了一个不偏不倚的评价,和圈子里一些声音可能不太相符,我是很替她担心的。我个人并不认识颜宁、没有见过这个教授,也没有读过她的论文(我不做蛋白质),也不知道她有什么具体个人事迹。我看到有些答案指责她,我单纯站在学术评价的立场上,认为她的发言除了“跟风型”这个词以外并没有什么问题。

————————————-感谢大家点赞—————————————-

我想补充一个,就是有些人来说施一公平时怎么样,颜宁平时怎么样一个人,我觉得这都是与本题无关的。颜宁我不了解,不评价这个人。施一公的一些理念和价值观从我了解的来看我是很反感的,我从不掩饰,我自己生命科学小砖工一枚,但我自己认识的学弟妹有崇拜施一公的我每次都会发表批评意见,就算当着施一公的面我也会直言不讳,然而那也和本题无关。

我说“跟风型”这个措辞不当,并不是说这个评价错了。基因编辑这风当然是很大的,“跟风”的人也是很多的,我自己就是合成生物学专业,我也是不折不扣的跟风者。颜宁自己坚持做蛋白质结构,没有看到合成生物学火就转行,她有她的坚持,也有她的跟风。最重要的是,颜宁并没有说她自己不是“跟风者”。

世界上有一种原创性研究是一眼看到心里想:“卧X,这TM都能想出来。”,对于熟悉合成生物学领域的人,韩的成果显然不是这类。颜宁的研究是不是这类,她的领域的人自会有判断,都很正常。同样是站在巨人肩膀上(据说出自牛顿羞辱胡克个子矮),对“跟风”的理解肯定有差异。如果颜宁说一句“跟风型”都要被扯出施一公、做人、修养等等批斗一番。那我要是说:“韩的研究完全符合一所二流大学教授的能力范围,这种人少是因为中国学术圈太混了。”——我岂不是可以上绞刑架了?

学术界平时互相吹捧的事情太多了,有人出来泼冷水很正常。且不说今天这盆冷水泼得有道理,就算这盆冷水泼错了,我觉得也没必要说什么“酸葡萄”之类的诛心之论,都是有罪推定。如果遇到看法不同,上来就用诛心之论,没证据就大扣“酸葡萄”“势利眼”之类的帽子,这不是文革逻辑吗?颜宁是不是酸葡萄只有她自己清楚,但没证据就自动无罪推定,这是现代文明的起码要求,否则以后谁还敢发表意见呢?

————————————————————————————————————————-
528更新,今天早上我的微信里是这样的(下图)。
韩老师在北京大学的报告中以数张PPT引用了本人答案【韩春雨团队发现的 NgAgo 基因编辑技术有可能在将来取代 CRISPR 被广泛运用吗? – 知乎用户的回答】的内容,我想知乎现在的影响力要比我想象得大。
很遗憾因为我人不在北京,只能通过北大有出席的朋友了解韩老师对于这些评价的看法和回应。当然希望未来有机会,可以和韩老师就学术问题当面交流。

来源:知乎 www.zhihu.com

作者:知乎用户(登录查看详情)

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此问题还有 40 个回答,查看全部。
延伸阅读:
合成生物学是门什么学科?
合成生物学的发展情况如何?有哪些成果?